Political Economy

Should Saudi Arabia undergo a transition from a rentier state to an energy soft power?

 

In 1974, energy policy analyst Amory Lovins described in his essay ‘Energy Strategy: The Road Not Taken?’, the two paths that the US may take in terms of its energy policy. In his essay he suggested that the US, as a first option, could rely on ‘hard’ energy sources; for example, fossil fuels and nuclear fission. As a second path, Lovins proposed benign renewable energy sources; such as solar power and wind power[1]. Whereas in 2010, energy data in the US shows that the 85% of energy consumption is of ‘hard’ energy sources, only 8% are of renewable energy sources; ‘soft energy’.[2] In an international level, the US is also the world’s number one consumer of oil[3]. This shows that the US decided to embark on Lovins first path of energy policy and neglect the second. Having said this, a rentier state relates a resource-dependent country in which all or a substantial sum of national revenue is generated from the export of oil and/or gas. Whilst Saudi Arabia is currently the world’s number one producer and exporter of oil[4], experts seem to have given it a rentier status. Given its high growth in population and energy consumption, the Kingdom has showed interested in tapping into a new market of renewable energies. Thus, maximizing its energy mix and undertaking what Lovins classifies as a soft energy path. This essay will analyse Saudi Arabia’s status as a rentier state, highlight renewable energy potentials and argue that it should embark on a shift from a rentier state to Lovins’ second path of energy soft power.

 

Hazem Beblawi in his influential ‘the Rentier State and The Arab World’ highlights four characteristics that could determine a rentier state: first, the notion of the rent predominating in the economy of a state; when oil and gas imports account for most of gross domestic product. Second, the state would rely completely on external rent; this leads a sate to rely on a strong domestic productive sector. Third, Beblawi asserts, in rentier states only a few in the population are involved with the generation of rent; masses are left to distribute and utilize it. Fourth, ‘the government is the principal recipient of the external rent in the economy’[5]. It is vital to compare the characteristics of a rentier state underlined by Beblawi to Saudi – whether or not it is applicable. According to OPEC, Saudi Arabia has 18% of the world’s oil reserves and is the number one ranked oil producer and exporter. In addition to this, the petroleum sector in Saudi accounts for 75% of budget reserves.[6] This, therefore, highlights that Saudi Arabia’s petroleum sector is the dominant, which is one element in Beblawi’s rentier theory. Since the 1973/74, economic growth has been rapid in the Kingdom and led to an anticipated population growth from six million in 1973 to almost 28 million in 2010.[7] Population growth reinforces the rentier state theory, as a large majority of Saudi’s population are not participants in the oil sector and a staggering 11% are unemployed (not including females).[8] Moreover, 95% of Saudi oil is produced on behalf of the government is by the large state-owned firm Saudi ARAMCO[9]. Saudi Arabia, thus, seems to fit the theory of a resource-dependent state and can be classified as a rentier state.

 

Having said this, Amory Lovins’s essay illustrates the two paths that the United States may take in the case of its energy policy. Saudi Arabia’s case is dissimilar to the US, as it is not short of energy reserves, it is the number one supplier of oil, it also has large cash reserves generated from oil imports, the private sector only employs 20% of Saudis. A transition from oil dependency seems like a positive prospect to Saudi Arabia, especially in terms of its economy. Domestic consumption of oil in Saudi Arabia has been growing rapidly in the past 40 years; averaging 5.7% annually, consuming approximately 3 million barrels per day[10]. According to a study conducted by the Oxford Institute of Energy Studies that sheds light on energy subsides in Saudi Arabia: Gasoline is heavily subsidized, even below production price (at 0.75$)[11]. Low gasoline prices will, therefore, play as an incentive for domestic consumption. In the 1980s when the population was low, it seems that there was substantial spare capacity of Saudi’s oil products. In 2012, the population has rapidly grown and utilities remain subsidized. Also given the tight international market; the rise of the BRIC states and their high demand of oil products. It appears that Saudi Arabia’s subsidized utilities may lead to a loss of revenue. Creating an energy mix may be helpful in order to keep Saudi Arabia on top of the exporters ranking. In addition to that, it is important to note that Saudi Arabia consumes domestically more oil than Germany (2.4mbd[12]); a country which has an almost three times larger population (over 80 million[13]). This means that if Saudi Arabia installs alternative energy for domestic consumption it can take advantage of oil hungry international market. Experts have expressed their concern for the quickly growing demand for electricity in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC); region’s total electricity consumption rising nearly tenfold since 1980[14]. For example, Laura El-Katiri, a specialist on Middle Eastern energy policy at the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, asserts that:

Policy choices made in the coming years by all six GCC members will be critical to raising the level of security the grid can provide, and for the development of a fully integrated, commercial regional electricity market.[15]

 

El-Katiri further highlights that GCC fuel base for electricity is far from being diverse; oil and natural gas are the most dominate[16]. Several states in the GCC have expressed their willingness to alternative energy sources Most notably, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which is in process of building Masdar City; a city that relies exclusively on alternative energies. UAE’s example encourages the idea for Saudi to undertake the transition to diversifying its energy sector and becoming closer to what Lovins described as ‘energy soft power’.

 

Saudi Arabia, like other states in the GCC, seeks diversification not when the prices of oil are low, but interestingly when they are arguably at their peak. Dr. N. Janardhan, a research Analyst at the UAE, provides explanation for this. He believes, first, it is a long-standing pressure from international financial institutions to develop a non-oil economy. Second, the notion that oil cannot sustain a state forever. Third, since oil prices are likely to remain high it makes sense to conserve and prolong its longevity and value of the GCC’s hydrocarbon reserves. Fourth, create a non-oil economy, and, thus, declassify its rentier status. Fifth, it will create jobs and, hence, be a solution to unemployment problems[17]. It appears that a transition to soft powers is necessary for Saudi Arabia to meet the domestic demands of energy, yet maintain high supplies of oil.

 

Having said that, in order for Saudi Arabia to maximize its potential in the international oil market, as this essay has shown, it must embark on alternative energies; such as solar energy, wind energy or hybrid system. First, Saudi Arabia’s solar potentials: the sun should be recognized as a major natural resource; (2200 thermal kilowatt hours (kWh) per square meter)[18], in other estimates it is the energy equivalence of 10 billion barrels each day.[19] In addition to this, Klaus Friedl, the general manager of Phoenix Solar, believes that there is a huge potential for solar power plants in Saudi Arabia.[20] This view is further argued by Saleh Alawaji, from King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, who gives three reasons why solar energy is a resource Saudi Arabia should tap into. First, given that Saudi Arabia has an area of roughly 2 million km2, renewable energy applications can generate power to many remote villages and settlements. Second, similar to Friedl’s view, the Kingdom has substantial potential for exploiting solar energy, but adds that if application were successful it can take a leading position in solar energy producing/exporting. Third, solar energy can be utilized as an addition to the existing marketing scheme, currently dominated by oil, and emphasize longevity of hydrocarbon resources for export revenues and for petro-chemical use.[21] Whilst the prospects of solar energy seems promising, it is still undergoing research & development and has not fully been applied completely efficiently. On the The Report: Saudi Arabia 2010, the author highlights several drawbacks regarding solar energy; ‘…its [solar power] relative inefficiency in power generated per dollar invested compared to other fuel sources’[22].  The author seems to look at it economically, however, even if one were to look at its functionality it may be hindered by the dust effect; in which dust covers the solar plants. Although some firms have come up with panels that self-clean, it shows that the product is still developing and it may be argued that solar panels will be highly considered in the future, not only in terms of Saudi, but also internationally.

In a research study conducted at the King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, wind energy data were generated and analysed in order to determine whether it can be applied in the Kingdom. The study shows that areas that generate good wind are mostly located in distant locations far from urban cities in which demand for electricity exists. In addition to that, the study asserts that wind power would be positively and preferably used for local and minimal-volume applications[23]. Wind energy, even though is utilized in developed countries, appears to be very promising but further research must be complete in order to analyse rigorously the feasibility of this type of soft energy.

 

As explored in this essay, Saudi Arabia, until today, is the world’s leading exporter of oil and is in the midst of rapid growth in terms of its population, energy consumption and unemployment rate. Although soft power path suggest by Amory Lovins described in his essay ‘Energy Strategy: The Road Not Taken?’, is costly in terms of feasibility tests as well as research and development, Saudi declassify itself from being a rentier state. The rise of BRIC counties provides great potential for its oil exporting, however its current domestic growth shows that if Saudi remain as they are there will be considerable loss of revenue. Some analysts maintain that Saudi Arabia is at peak in terms of oil; who claim that the estimates of the oil reserves in Saudi are exaggerated and is actually about to run out[24]. This essay has not shed light on ‘peak oil’, which would have provided additional ground to the argument for a transition to ‘soft power’ energies. In addition to that, nuclear energy was not addressed; this can be seen as limitation for the scope of analysis as it appears to be considered as a solution for the high electricity demand in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council. However, as nuclear energy is classified as ‘hard energy’ according to Amoy Lovins, it was not taken into perspective in terms of the transition. It will provide an additional element to the energy mix of Saudi, and thus, the rentier status will be eliminated. This essay’s conclusion goes hand in hand with a research report led by Yasser Al-Saleh, from, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, concludes in a study conducted that analyses several renewable energies in Saudi Arabia:

 

Saudi Arabia, despite being a key oil producer should not be seen as an exception in this regard. It is believed that ‘now’ is the appropriate time to invest in developing capabilities in the field of renewable energy in order to secure the country’s future for a sustainable economy and to address its rapidly-growing energy needs. The drive towards renewable energy in Saudi Arabia should not be regarded as being a luxury but rather a must, as a sign of good governance, concern for the environment and prudence in oil-production policy[25]

 

 

Essay written in 2012

 

Bibliography

 

  • Al-Saleh, Yasser. “Renewable Energy Scenarios for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.” Elsevier 41 (2009): 650-662.
  • Business Group, Oxford. The Report: Saudi Arabia 2010. Oxford: Oxford Business Group, 2010.
  • Alawaji, Saleh. “Evaluation of solar energy research and its applications in Saudi Arabia – 20 years of expierence.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 5 (2001): 59-77.
  • “Analysis / N. Janardhan: Whither the Gulf? Toward Economic Diversification.”Alarabiya.net-English. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/05/29/151035.html (accessed January 16, 2012).
  • El-Katiri, Laura . “Interlinking the Arab Gulf: Opportunities and Challenges of electricity and market Cooperation.”Oxford Institute for Energy Studies 2 (2011): 22.
  • Janin, Hunt, and Margaret Besheer.Saudi Arabia. 2nd ed. New York: Benchmark Books, 2003.
  • Lovins, Amory, ‘Energy Strategy: The Road Not Taken?, Foreign Affairs, Tampa, FL: Council on Foreign Relations, October 1974.
  • Luciani, Giacomo, and Hazim Beblawi. “The Rentier State in the Arab World.” In The Arab state. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. 85-98.
  • Said, Sam. “Renewable Energy Potentials in Saudi Arabia.” King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 1 (2010): 1-9.
  • “Saudi Arabia.” U.S. Department of State. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3584.htm (accessed January 16, 2012).
  • “Solar Power Comes to Saudi Arabia in a Big Way as Peak Oil Looms | Fast Company.” FastCompany.com – Where ideas and people meet | Fast Company. http://www.fastcompany.com/1728619/saudi-arabia-looks-to-alternative-energy-as-peak-oil-looms-heavily (accessed January 16, 2012).
  • World development indicators. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Publications, 2011.

 

 

 

 

 


[1] Lovins, Amory, ‘Energy Strategy: The Road Not Taken?, Foreign Affairs, Tampa, FL: Council on Foreign Relations, October 1974.

[2] U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2010, Tables 1.3, 2.1b-2.1f, 10.3, and 10.4, October 19, 2011.

[3] Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook: United States. November 17, 2011, Retrieved January 16, 20012, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html

[4] Organisation of the Petroleum Countries, Annual Statistical Bulletin 2010/2011 Edition: Austria, 2011

[5] Luciani, Giacomo, and Hazim Beblawi. “The Rentier State in the Arab World.” In The Arab state. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. 85-98.

[6] Organisation of the Petroleum Countries, Annual Statistical Bulletin 2010/2011 Edition: Austria, 2011

[7] World development indicators. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Publications, 2011

[8] Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook: Saudi Arabia. November 10, 2011, Retrieved January 16, 2012, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sa.html

[9] “Saudi Arabia.” U.S. Department of State. Retrieved January 16, 2012 http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3584.htm

[10] Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook: Saudi Arabia. November 10, 2011, Retrieved January 16, 2012, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sa.html

[11] El-Katiri, Laura . “Interlinking the Arab Gulf: Opportunities and Challenges of electricity and market Cooperation.”, 22

[12] Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook: Oil Consumption. November 10, 2011, Retrieved January 16, 2012 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2174.html

[13] Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook: Germany. November 10, 2011, Retrieved January 16, 2012  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gm.html

[14] El-Katiri, Laura . “Interlinking the Arab Gulf: Opportunities and Challenges of electricity and market Cooperation.”Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 2011, 3

[15] El-Katiri, Laura . “Interlinking the Arab Gulf: Opportunities and Challenges of electricity and market Cooperation.”, 1

[16] El-Katiri, Laura . “Interlinking the Arab Gulf: Opportunities and Challenges of electricity and market Cooperation.”, 28

[17] Analysis / N. Janardhan: Whither the Gulf? Toward Economic Diversification.” Alarabiya.net English. http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/05/29/151035.html (accessed January 16, 2012)

[18] Said, Sam. “Renewable Energy Potentials in Saudi Arabia.” King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. 2010: 1-9.

 

[19] Janin, Hunt, and Margaret Besheer.Saudi Arabia. 2nd ed. New York: Benchmark Books, 2003, 51

[20] “Solar Power Comes to Saudi Arabia in a Big Way as Peak Oil Looms | Fast Company.” FastCompany.com – Where ideas and people meet | Fast Company. http://www.fastcompany.com/1728619/saudi-arabia-looks-to-alternative-energy-as-peak-oil-looms-heavily (accessed January 16, 2012).

[21] Alawaji, Saleh. “Evaluation of solar energy research and its applications in Saudi Arabia – 20 years of expierence.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 5 (2001): 59-77.

[22]The Report: Saudi Arabia 2010. Oxford: Oxford Business Group, 2010.

131

[23] Said, Sam. “Renewable Energy Potentials in Saudi Arabia.” King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. 2010: 1-9

[24] Said, Sam. “Renewable Energy Potentials in Saudi Arabia.”

[25] Al-Saleh, Yasser. “Renewable Energy Scenarios for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.” Elsevier 41 (2009): 650-662

 

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The Trend Driven Nation

The Trend Driven Nation

A trend begins another ends.

The world is governed by trends; clothing style, attitude, type of music, product, movements or even a choice of ‘word’. In one case, experts in International Relations point out the lexical choice of ‘International Community’ and claim it has picked up as a trend in amongst foreign policy. Others,look at the spread of Puma sneakers, the shift to R n B, joining social networking websites as trends.

In order to narrow the lens on ‘trend’, I will pick up a state that I, wholeheartedly, see as a trend driven nation.

Imagine a trend driving a whole nation…

I will begin a mini-series of posts that shed light on how trends pick up in Saudi and try and highlight patterns.

A trend begins another ends…

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Philosophy

The notion of positive freedom

Credit: Shutterstock

“The ‘positive’ sense of the word ‘liberty’ derives from the wish
on the part of the individual to be hisown master. I wish my
life and decisions to depend on myself, not on external forces of
whatever kind. I wish to be the instrument of my own, not of
other men’s, acts of will. I wish to be a subject, not an object; to be
moved by reasons, by conscious purposes which are my own, not
by causes which affect me, as it were, from outside. I wish to be
somebody, not nobody; a doer — deciding, not being decided for,
self-directed and not acted upon by external nature or by other
men as if I were a thing, or an animal, or a slave incapable of play-
ing a human role, that is, of conceiving goals and policies of my
own and realizing them. This is at least part of what I mean when
I say that I am rational, and that it is my reason that distinguishes
me as a human being from the rest of the world. I wish, above all,
to be conscious of myself as a thinking, willing, active being, bear-
ing responsibility for his choices and able to explain them by
reference to his own ideas and purposes. I feel free to the degree
that I believe this to be true, and enslaved to the degree that I
am made to realize that it is not.”

Source: Two concepts of Liberty by Berlin: Four Essays on Liberty (1969)

 

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Saudi customized lens

Saudi Shock Therapy

The distinguished economist Milton Friedman once said: ‘Only a crisis – actual or perceived – produces real change’.

I, personally, agree with Friedman’s statement. What Friedman is raising not only applies to the world of economics, but also to everything that governs our lives. I will not go into detail about it, but I would strongly recommend Naomi Klein’s Shock Doctrine that challenges Friedman’s free-market policies and illustrates various examples of how a crisis actually produced real change. Klein highlights the change in Latin America; Chile and Argentina’s market privatization, post 9/11; change in US domestic and foreign policies – the fundamental reason for waging the war on terror.

I hope the picture is clear now, as I only plan to discuss this through a Saudi-Jeddawi lens.

Credit: Facebook الحملة الشعبية للمساهمة في إنقاذ مدينة جدة By the end of November 2009, heavy rain hit the people in Jeddah – sadly, a number of them passed away.

What succeeded this unfortunate event was something noteworthy; the emergence of humanitarian aid – not the basic collection of material donations, but instead a personal hand.

Saudi youth, adults and elders stood hand in hand, despite age, gender, background, class… It seemed that everyone was pre-occupied with purpose – a GOAL to help out those who have been affected by the flood.

The Jeddawi Saudis were in a state of shock, and, therefore, something abnormal occurred.  Although there was opposition by the committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (هيئة الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر) to put the humanitarian aid movement to a halt,  it was resisted by determined Saudis who subconsciously protested and used the external circumstances as an alibi for such a significant change; community service, and to be precise gender-mixed.

This dramatic change would not have happened with perhaps 20 Majlis Al-Shura meetings, as a result of some of them being diagnosed with phobia of change – or as would the psychology jargon phrase it:  future shock – ainophobia, the fear of newness.

It seems that Friedman’s theory of change was, to a degree, applied to Jeddawi Saudi society.  Whilst the aim of this post is not to assert that change only occurs when there is a crisis,  but to argue that people with influence should take advantage of a crisis (لا سمح الله) to produce positive change within our society.

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Uncategorized

ABC in Saudi Arabia, meeting the experts and knowing the target

Today we [Saudis] dwell on how unfortunate our current situation is, how the previous leaders failed to meet the demands of the rapid development of the 20th century, how education is poor, how unemployment is rising, how bribery became an everyday habit and finally how connections make life  easier!

It is, in no doubt, an extremely significant thing for us to admit that we are mistaken. Our ice-breaker discussion today is just how unsuccessful we are (whether true or not) and begin comparing ourselves with the old Islamic Caliphates, to the United States and recently Japan.

Very good! You would think we are comparing ourselves to know where we stand and where want to be. However,  we are now experts at pinpointing the errors, today everyone utilizes various coefficients in an equation that underscores our situation, whether economically, politically or academically … but at the end we all deduce an exact single result; failure. Some blame it on how we lost our everyday ethics, how dishonesty emerged, that we are too spoiled or living in poverty.

Our main objective, if there is one, is to jump from point A to point C without passing by B. It may be possible, but it is in fact not advisable. The question, therefore, emerges: What is point A, B and C? My humble answer to this modest question will be: Sorry there is not only a single answer but a million! One million! Yes, because to every situation there is an alternative way to tackle it with this so called theory of ABC

We utilize this theory conditionally to an obstacle we face. For instance, let’s employ this analogy in the business world; how would A, B and C be implemented.

Before I start with an example, it will be my honour to introduce the experts that will provide us with their assertions that would balance the reliability or the credibility of the example chosen.

  1. Dinner evening specialists (DES); a group of people who meet for dinner and usually end up discussing the welfare of the nation, the negatives, and at sometimes they end up celebrating the achievements of a minority in the country.
  2. Afternoon singles (AN); a group of singles who usually hang out at a café’. Unlike DES, the afternoon singles discussions vary, sometimes it is about the country, stuff they must buy, stuff they wish to buy, football and what’s wrong in their lives.

Back to the example:  Point A may be an individual’s qualities in the workforce; leader, hard worker or organized, teamwork…etc. – simple stupid. So far point A is clear? I hope so.

Point B is putting these qualities in immense action, receiving hard tasks, working with foreigners (unfortunately subconscious racism)… Point B is the area where an employee may get demotivated, feel he is fed up.

Why would such a behaviour occur? On the one hand, according to dinner evening’s specialists (DES) in this particular situation assert that this shift in behaviour is due to the fact that they are given an easy ride in school, in other words there is not much challenge in school, therefore, getting used to studying a day or week before the exam.  On the other hand, according to the afternoon singles (AS) it is as a result of being spoiled, getting used to things coming easy- life being easy… until you suddenly encounter difficulties and thus back off. Valid argument, obviously not to all… but to some at least

Point C, Maslow’s hierarchy’s self-actualization, being an executive, a CEO… Aiming high! Another argument by our team of experts, DES claim these high ambitions are, in fact, due to the notion that they are being pressured by society’s expectations, and hence wanting to meet their anticipations. However, AS give a dissimilar theory, their thesis states that these high aims particularly go hand in hand with the love of tangible materialistic things, meaning the idea of owning the best car, a big house and travelling first class.

Therefore, to conclude, we may say that these points, in order to effectively employ them we must follow them chronologically, rather than jump from different points. If an individual jumps from A to C, in the example used above, it may mean the individual did not experience B (the hard one) vividly and is thus not able to perform well as a C – a CEO. This, therefore, draws the line that distinguishes where the real mistake is:

  • Blaming the government: 50% effective – The government can provide everything but it is for you to follow up… We cannot all be CEOs.
  • Blaming bad teachers: 10% effective –Teachers are put at a halt, perhaps because they are not satisfied with their salary, with the weakness of the syllabus and unmotivated students.
  • Blaming the family (Society); 30% effective, blaming the country for not being trained to encounter difficulties, such as getting used to living economically and to cut costs.
  • Attend the dinner or chill at the café’: 0% effective all you will do is sit down moan and hope one day things will turn around.
  • Blaming yourself; 88% effective, making the change you seek in the world… nevertheless an evident loophole may be falling into depression.

Hence, not only the government, the private sector, the health sector, the education sector, the industrial sector are all responsible, but also you are, by all means, responsible!

May Allah bless all.

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Uncategorized

City-life.

Extract from Cosmo Magazine

Dear ambitious city inhabitant,

Today, reflecting on the flow of years, I came a cross something; creativity today and creativity yesterday.

Do both definitions go hand in hand? Maybe, you assume.

You have big hopes of success, thats what I was told.  I do too!

Speaking of success, are you the type of person who wishes to follow-on the foot steps of others and be labelled as a successful, ‘follower’, enhancer or whatever you plan to call it.

What is creativity? It is defined as follows:

1. Having the ability or power to create: Human beings are creative animals.
2. Productive; creating.
3. Characterized by originality and expressiveness; imaginative: creative writing.
Have you heard these words dear city-er? ‘Ability’, ‘Power’, ‘Create’, Productivity’, ‘Originiality’, ‘Experssiveness’ or ‘Imaginative’.
Can you relate to these words? I hope you can.
Dear City-er, what is your daily conduct?
Do you wake up tired from the night before?
Do you walk to a bus stop or a metro station?
Do you take long boring journey to your place of work/study?
Do you spend a lot of time enhancing your knowledge?
Do you spend a lot of time working on your existing knowledge?
Do you spend time procrastinating on nonsense?
Do you spend a lot of time on the internet?
Do you spend time watching TV?
Do you take your time on the phone?
Do you spend all your time with people?
Must be interesting! Must be incredible! Most importantly, your life must be insanely busy!!!
Do you have time to Think, experiment or write? In your words; “mess about”
This analysis, therefore, drives – a relatively short- route to reach to a  conclusion, most likely ending with a question mark, to your distinguished opinion.
Does city life kill creativity, my dear ambitions city inhabitant?
Please prove me wrong.
Yours,
Mr. Querist.
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